In the name of ALLAH, the most beneficient, the most merciful

Research Methods (STA630)

Multiple Choice Questions (MCQs)

 

Objective Questions

Question

According to scientific method, which of the following is NOT an empirical reality?

  1. Emotions
  2. God's reward for good deeds
  3. Satisfaction
  4. None of the given

Answer: Chapter No.  

Question

Which of the following is NOT a purpose of a literature review?

  1. Helps you find out what is already known about this area.
  2. Helps you in getting response from the respondents.
  3. Helps you in developing theoretical framework.
  4. Helps you to learn from others and stimulate new ideas.

Answer: Chapter No.  

Question

Which one of the following creates problems of measurements of a concept?

  1. Unambiguous meanings
  2. Vague meanings
  3. Clear meanings
  4. Dictionary meanings

Answer: Chapter No.  

Question

Null hypothesis states:

  1. Absence of relationship
  2. Existence of relationship
  3. The direction of relationship
  4. Casual relationship

Answer: Chapter No.  

Question

The most critical areas of an article to read is;

  1. Results section
  2. Introduction
  3. Abstract
  4. Limitations

Answer: Chapter No.  

Question

Which of the following is a concept?

  1. Leadership
  2. Total Quality Management
  3. Human Resource Management
  4. All of the given

Answer: Chapter No.  

Question

Descriptive research can be either

  1. Qualitative
  2. Quantitative
  3. Both Qualitative and Quantitative
  4. None of the given

Answer: Chapter No.  

Question

Under which of the following research method is not applicable?

  1. Health care
  2. Business
  3. Government offices
  4. Imaginary worlds

Answer: Chapter No.  

Question

______ gives generic idea and not able to measure anything directly, whereas _______ is practical level where researchers make theoretical realities measureable.

  1. Abstract level, abstract level
  2. Empirical level, abstract level
  3. Empirical level, empirical level
  4. Abstract level, empirical level

Answer: Chapter No.  

Question

Qualitative and Quantitative Research are the classifications of research on the basis of

  1. Use of the research
  2. Time dimension
  3. Techniques used
  4. Purpose of the research

Answer: Chapter No.  

Question

After a researcher has stated the specific problem to be studied in an experiment, he must then develop a(n):

  1. Theory
  2. Conclusion
  3. Hypothesis
  4. Summary of the data

Answer: Chapter No.  

Question

The ______ is only useful if the concepts, ideas, questions, etc. to be investigated are both testable and falsifiable.

  1. Independent Variable
  2. Dependent Variable
  3. Experimental Method
  4. Scientific Method

Answer: Chapter No.  

Question

Which of the following is the best hypothesis statement to address the research question, "What impact will the new advertising campaign have on use of Brand B?"

  1. The new advertising campaign will impact Brand B usage.
  2. The new advertising campaign will increase Brand B trial.
  3. The new advertising campaign will cause increased Brand B usage at the expense of Brand C.
  4. The new advertising campaign will increase Brand B's market penetration.

Answer: Chapter No.  

Question

A one tailed hypothesis predicts _______.

  1. The future
  2. The lottery result
  3. The frequency of the effect
  4. The direction of the effect

Answer: Chapter No.  

Question

A review that only demonstrates familiarity with an area is rarely published but it often is part of an educational program is which type of review?

  1. Integrative reviews
  2. Theoretical reviews
  3. Self-study reviews
  4. Historical reviews

Answer: Chapter No.  

Question

What research is?

  1. A lab experiment
  2. A report
  3. A systematic Enquiry
  4. A survey

Answer: Chapter No.  

Question

What is a cross-sectional research?

  1. A study of one particular section of society
  2. A comparison of two or more variables over a long period of time
  3. The collection of data from more than one case at one moment in time
  4. One that is conducted when environment is uncertain

Answer: Chapter No.  

Question

Which of the following is Not a technique to narrow down the broad problem area?

  1. Doing a literature survey
  2. Ask questions from the knowledgeable persons
  3. Consider topic in specific context
  4. Decide about the sample

Answer: Chapter No.  

Question

A literature review requires;

  1. planning
  2. clear writing
  3. good writing
  4. All of the given

Answer: Chapter No.  

Question

An elementary or basic form of research, in which little is known about the situation and previous theories or ideas do not apply, is known as:

  1. Explanatory Study
  2. Descriptive Study
  3. Exploratory Study
  4. Cohort Study

Answer: Chapter No.  

Question

______ validity indicates that items that are intended to be measured look like they measure the concept.

  1. Content validity
  2. Concurrent validity
  3. Face validity
  4. Construct validity

Answer: Chapter No.  

Question

"Have you ever had or been treated for skin allergy? Yes No" Which type of question it is?

  1. Leading question
  2. Loaded question
  3. Double barreled question
  4. Ambiguous question

Answer: Chapter No.  

Question

A random sampling technique which chooses elements from subgroups of population for study is called:

  1. Simple random sample
  2. Stratified random sampling
  3. Cluster sampling
  4. Systematic sampling

Answer: Chapter No.  

Question

A sample can be defined as:

  1. The subject on which the measurement is being taken
  2. The total collection of elements about which we wish to make some inferences
  3. The count of all elements in a population
  4. Some selected elements from a population through which we can draw conclusions about all population

Answer: Chapter No.  

Question

An advantage of computer-assisted telephone interviewing is:

  1. Interviewing time is reduced
  2. Data quality is enhanced
  3. Questionnaires do not have to be coded
  4. There is little opportunity for interviewer bias

Answer: Chapter No.  

Question

Census is better option than sampling in which of the following cases?

  1. When physical material is to be destroyed in study
  2. When population is highly variable
  3. When budget constraints are there
  4. When researcher wants speedy data collection

Answer: Chapter No.  

Question

If a nominal scale is used, it is permissible to calculate which of the following statistics?

  1. Mean
  2. Range
  3. Percentile
  4. Mode

Answer: Chapter No.  

Question

If an interview is conducted with a respondent who does not meet the qualifications for a study, what kind of bias has occurred?

  1. Respondent bias
  2. Position bias
  3. Non-response bias
  4. Instrument bias

Answer: Chapter No.  

Question

If, after pilot testing, a researcher finds that some questions are more appealing then purposeful. Which type of the following instrumental errors can it present if not corrected?

  1. Sampling error
  2. Reliability error
  3. Formatting error
  4. Data analysis error

Answer: Chapter No.  

Question

In which of the following sampling methods People are available such as volunteer or can be easily recruited?

  1. Simple random sampling
  2. Cluster sampling
  3. Systematic sampling
  4. Convenience sampling

Answer: Chapter No.  

Question

In which way does a ratio scale measurement differ from an interval measurement?

  1. It measures larger or smaller scores on some underlying dimension.
  2. It implies the existence of an absolute zero value.
  3. It requires the mutual exclusivity of all cases.
  4. It requires that exhaustiveness is applied to all observations.

Answer: Chapter No.  

Question

Mr. Haris is interested in studying the shared beliefs and practices of the teachers in a small rural school. He is likely to use which research design?

  1. Basic research
  2. Longitudinal research
  3. Descriptive research
  4. None of the given

Answer: Chapter No.  

Question

One of the preoccupations of quantitative researchers is with generalization, which is a sign of:

  1. External validity
  2. Internal reliability
  3. External reliability
  4. Internal validity

Answer: Chapter No.  

Question

What is ordinal data?

  1. Ordinary data
  2. Well behaved data
  3. Ranked data
  4. Numbers

Answer: Chapter No.  

Question

Which of the following best defines the census for study?

  1. The subject on which the measurement is being taken
  2. The count of all elements in a population
  3. Some selected elements from a population through which we can draw conclusions about all population
  4. None of the given

Answer: Chapter No.  

Question

Which of the following can be used to improve the customer’s viewpoint about firm’s products and services?

  1. Experiential innovation
  2. Customer interface
  3. Experiential world of customers
  4. Building experiential platform

Answer: Chapter No.  

Question

Which of the following is a research method that allows a researcher to get information about a large number of subjects relatively inexpensively and easily?

  1. Naturalistic observation
  2. Case study
  3. Laboratory observation
  4. Survey

Answer: Chapter No.  

Question

Which of the following is an example of an issue that would be checked in a pilot testing?

  1. Completion of all questions on a questionnaire
  2. Legible writing
  3. Single responses to all multiple choice questions
  4. Logical answers between questions (i.e., attributes should be rated high if purchase interest is high)

Answer: Chapter No.  

Question

Which of the following is NOT a longitudinal study?

  1. Trend study
  2. One shot study
  3. Panel study
  4. Cohort study

Answer: Chapter No.  

Question

Which of the following is NOT characteristic of qualitative data?

  1. Thick, rich descriptions
  2. Unorganized
  3. Voluminous
  4. Concise and succinct

Answer: Chapter No.  

Question

With which of the following way the distortion can be produced in self report data?

  1. Lying
  2. Social desirability bias
  3. Faulty memory
  4. All of the given

Answer: Chapter No.  

Question

Which one of the following is not an assumption of science?

  1. There are reoccurring patterns in the world.
  2. Events happen because of preceding causes.
  3. We can discover solutions to problems of interest.
  4. Theoretical explanations must agree with common sense.

Answer: 2 Chapter No. 2 

Question

What is a cross-sectional research?

  1. A study of one particular section of society
  2. A comparison of two or more variables over a long period of time
  3. The collection of data from more one case at one moment in time
  4. One that is conducted when environment is uncertain

Answer: 3 Chapter No. 3 

Question

Which of the following is at the highest level of abstraction?

  1. Concept
  2. Proposition
  3. Theory
  4. Hypothesis

Answer: 2 Chapter No. 4 

Question

Which of following statement is true?

  1. Theory and Research are dichotomous
  2. Theory and Research are interrelated
  3. There is no difference between Theory and Research
  4. None of the given

Answer: 2 Chapter No. 4 

Question

After a researcher has stated the specific problem to be studied in an experiment, he must then develop a(n):

  1. Theory
  2. Conclusion
  3. Hypothesis
  4. Summary of the data

Answer: 1 Chapter No. 4 

Question

An operational definition is:

  1. One that bears no relation to the underlying concept.
  2. An abstract, theoretical definition of a concept.
  3. A definition of a concept in terms of specific, empirical measures.
  4. One that refers to opera singers and their work.

Answer: 3 Chapter No. 5 

Question

Hypothesis refers to ________:

  1. The outcome of an experiment
  2. A conclusion drawn from an experiment
  3. A form of bias in which the subject tries to outguess the experimenter
  4. A tentative ststement about the relationship

Answer: 4 Chapter No. 6 

Question

Which of the following is a discrete variable?

  1. Age
  2. Nationality
  3. Test score
  4. Income

Answer: 2 Chapter No. 6 

Question

Which of the following statements is true?

  1. All concepts are variables and all variables are concepts
  2. All variables are concepts but all concepts are not variable
  3. All concepts are variables but all variables are not concepts
  4. None of the given

Answer: 2 Chapter No. 6 

Question

Which of the following is NOT a purpose of a literature review?

  1. Helps you find out what is already known about this area.
  2. Helps you in getting response from the respondents
  3. Helps you in developing theoretical framework.
  4. Helps you to learn from others and stimulate new ideas.

Answer: 2 Chapter No. 8 

Question

A Literature review that summarizes what is known at a point in time is known as:

  1. Narative literature review
  2. Systematic literature review
  3. Integrative review
  4. Historical review

Answer: 3 Chapter No. 8 

Question

The purpose of a literature review is to:

  1. Help you find out what is already known about this area.
  2. Identify any inconsistencies or gaps in the literature
  3. Demonstrate an awareness of the theoretical context in which the current study can be located.
  4. All of the given

Answer: 1 Chapter No. 8 

Question

Which of the following is Not helpful in problem definition?

  1. Discussion with professionals
  2. Hypothesis
  3. Literature survey
  4. Preliminary data collection

Answer: 2 Chapter No. 12 

Question

Preliminary Data Collection may be considered as part of ________.

  1. Descriptive research
  2. Explananory research
  3. Exploratory research
  4. All of the given

Answer: 3 Chapter No. 12 

Question

Which of the following is not an unethical issue?

  1. Invoicing irregularities
  2. Avoiding legal liability
  3. Misrepresenting results
  4. None of the given

Answer: 4 Chapter No. 13 

Question

Which of the following is a form of harm that might be suffered by research participants?

  1. Physical injury
  2. Stress
  3. Anxiety
  4. All of the given

Answer: 1 Chapter No. 13 

Question

Which of the following activities is Not included in debriefing?

  1. Explanation of any deception
  2. Post study result sharing
  3. Obtaining informed consent
  4. Description of the purpose of study

Answer: 3 Chapter No. 14 

Question

A researcher in his questionnaire asked nature of business respondents are working in; whether trading, manufacturing or servicing. Nature of business is likely to be measured on which type of following scales?

  1. Interval Scale
  2. Ratio scale
  3. Nominal scale
  4. Ordinal scale

Answer: 3 Chapter No. 17 

Question

A _______ scale only assigns numbers to objects to classify the objects according to the characteristic of interest.

  1. Ratio
  2. Nominal
  3. Interval
  4. Dichotomous

Answer: 2 Chapter No. 17 

Question

If a measure is consistent over multiple occasions, it has:

  1. Inter-rater reliability
  2. Construct validity
  3. Internal validity
  4. Test-retest reliability

Answer: 4 Chapter No. 18