In the name of ALLAH, the most beneficient, the most merciful

## Artificial Intelligence (CS607)

Multiple Choice Questions (MCQs)

## Objective Questions

### Question

Identify the statement which best defines the fuzzy sets.

1. Fuzzy sets, unlike classical sets, restrict themselves to something lying wholly in either set A or in set not-A.
2. Fuzzy sets, like classical sets, restrict themselves to something lying wholly in either set A or in set not-A.
3. Fuzzy sets, unlike classical sets, do not restrict themselves to something lying wholly in either set A or in set A.
4. Fuzzy sets, unlike classical sets, do not restrict themselves to something lying wholly in either set A or in set not-A.

 Answer: 4 Chapter No.

### Question

Identify that for which purpose statment given below is used (deftamplate Person (slot name (type STRING)) (slot age(type NUMBER)) )

1. Attributes of a fact
2. Rule
3. Rule definition
4. CLIPS

 Answer: 4 Chapter No.

### Question

Identify the correct statement to list facts numbers 1 through 10

1. clips> (facts 1 10)
2. clips> (facts 1 to 10)
3. clips> (facts 10)
4. clips> (facts 1)

 Answer: 1 Chapter No.

### Question

Fuzzy logic is actually a superset of conventional boolean logic

1. True
2. False

 Answer: 1 Chapter No.

### Question

Identify which statement defines classical sets in a best way

1. A classical set is a container, which wholly includes but not wholly excludes any given element.
2. A classical set is a container, which does not wholly includes or wholly excludes any given element.
3. A classical set is a container, which sometimes wholly includes or wholly excludes any given element.
4. A classical set is a container, which wholly includes or wholly excludes any given element.

 Answer: 4 Chapter No.

### Question

General stages of ESDLC includes.

1. Spiral model
2. Linear model
3. Beta system (tested by users)
4. Design coding

 Answer: 3 Chapter No.

### Question

Identify the correct definition of linear model given below.

1. A linear sequence of steps is applied repeatedly in an iterative fashion to develop the software models.
2. A non sequential sequence of steps is applied repeatedly in an iterative fashion to develop the expert systems.
3. A non linear sequence of steps is applied repeatedly in an iterative fashion to develop the expert systems.
4. A linear sequence of steps is applied repeatedly in an iterative fashion to develop the Expert Systems.

 Answer: 4 Chapter No.

### Question

Fuzzy logic is a subset of conventional (Boolean) logic.

1. True
2. False

 Answer: 2 Chapter No.

### Question

Identify the sets in which Membership Function is used.

1. Crisp set
2. Classical set
3. Fuzzy set
4. None of the given

 Answer: 3 Chapter No.

### Question

The goal of knowledge analysis is to analyze and structure the knowledge gained during the planning phase.

1. True
2. False

 Answer: 2 Chapter No.

### Question

Identify correct statement for the given rule. IF The aptitude level of an undergraduate student is low and The English understanding level of undergraduate student is dull THEN He is not eligible to go abroad for higher studies.

1. (deftamplate UnderGradStudent (slot attribute)(slot value))
(defrule StudentStatus (UnderGradStudent (attribute “aptitude level”)(value “low”))
(UnderGradStudent (attribute “English understanding level”)(value “dull”))
=> (printout t “He is not eligible to go abroad for higher studies”)
2. (deftamplate UnderGradStudent (slot attribute)(slot value))
(defrule StudentStatus (UnderGradStudent (attribute “aptitude level”)(value “low”))
(UnderGradStudent (attribute “English understanding level”)(value “dull”))
=> (printout t “He is not eligible to go abroad for higher studies”))
3. (deftamplate UnderGradStudent (slot attribute)(slot value))
(defrule StudentStatus (UnderGradStudent (attribute “aptitude level”)(value “low”))
(UnderGradStudent (attribute “English understanding level”)(value “dull”))
<=> (printout t “He is not eligible to go abroad for higher studies”))
4. (defrule StudentStatus (UnderGradStudent (attribute “aptitude level”)(value “low”))
(UnderGradStudent (attribute “English understanding level”)(value “dull”))
=> (printout t “He is not eligible to go abroad for higher studies”))

 Answer: Chapter No.

### Question

A classical set is a container, which wholly includes or wholly excludes any given element.

1. True
2. False

 Answer: 1 Chapter No.

### Question

Sequence wise main phases of Linear model used in developing expert systems are given below.

1. 1)Planning
2)Knowledge acquisition and analysis
3)System evaluation
4)Knowledge design
5)Code
6)Knowledge verification
2. 1)Planning
2)Knowledge acquisition and analysis
3)Knowledge design
4)System evaluation
5)Code
6)Knowledge verification
3. 1)Planning
2)Knowledge acquisition and analysis
3)Knowledge design
4)Code
5)System evaluation
6)Knowledge verification
4. 1)Planning
2)Knowledge acquisition and analysis
3)Knowledge design
4)Code
5)Knowledge verification
6)System evaluation

 Answer: Chapter No.

### Question

IF IELTS score of Ali is 6 and CGPA of Ali is 3.7 and GRE score of Ali is 66 Then He is eligible to take admission in any of the University abroad

1. (deftamplate Ali (slot attribute)(slot value))
(defrule Alichance (Ali (attribute “IELTS score”)(value “6”))
(Ali (attribute “CGPA”)(value “3.7”))
(Ali (attribute “GRE”)(value “66”))
<=
(printout t “He is eligible to take admission in any of the University abroad”))
2. (deftamplate Ali (slot attribute)(slot value))
(defrule Alichance (Ali (attribute “IELTS score”)(value “6”))
(Ali (attribute “CGPA”)(value “3.7”))(Ali (attribute “GRE”)(value “66”))
=>
(printout t “He is eligible to take admission in any of the University abroad”)
3. (deftamplate Ali (slot attribute)(slot value))
(defrule Alichance (Ali (attribute “IELTS score”)(value “6”))
(Ali (attribute “CGPA”)(value “3.7”))
(Ali (attribute “GRE”)(value “66”))
=>
(printout t “He is eligible to take admission in any of the University abroad”))
4. (defrule Alichance (Ali (attribute “IELTS score”)(value “6”))
(Ali (attribute “CGPA”)(value “3.7”))
(Ali (attribute “GRE”)(value “66”))
=>
(printout t “He is eligible to take admission in any of the University abroad”))

 Answer: Chapter No.

### Question

Identify the step involved in planning phase.

1. Knowledge acquisition from expert
2. Coding
3. Resource allocation
4. Identify concrete knowledge elements

 Answer: 3 Chapter No.

### Question

Identify the correct step used to start design of an expert system.

1. Feasiblity study
2. Problem recognization
3. Scope study
4. Rapid prototyping

 Answer: 1 Chapter No.

### Question

____________ learning works on existing facts and knowledge and deduces new knowledge from the old.

1. Deductive
2. Inductive
3. Application
4. None of the given

 Answer: 1 Chapter No.

### Question

A concept is the representation of the __________ with respect to the given attributes.

1. Solution
2. Problem
3. Knowledge
4. None of the given

 Answer: 2 Chapter No.

### Question

Each neuron in the hidden layer is responsible for a different _________.

1. Line
2. Layer
3. Neuron
4. None of the given

 Answer: 1 Chapter No.

### Question

If the true output of a concept [c(xi)] is 1 or 0 for an instance, then the output by our hypothesis [h(xi)] is 1 or 0 as well, respectively.

1. True
2. False

 Answer: 1 Chapter No.

### Question

In Candidate-Elimination algorithm version space is represented by two sets named:

1. G and S
2. G and F
3. S and F
4. H and S

 Answer: 1 Chapter No.

### Question

Inductive learning is based on the knowledge that if something happens a lot it is likely to be generally _________

1. True
2. False
3. Ambiguous
4. None of the given

 Answer: 1 Chapter No.

### Question

Inductive learning takes examples and generalizes rather than starting with __________ knowledge

1. Existing
2. Inductive
3. Deductive
4. None of the given

 Answer: 1 Chapter No.

### Question

Machine learning is a prerequisite for any mature program of artificial intelligence

1. True
2. False

 Answer: 1 Chapter No.

### Question

The tractable problems are further divided into structured and ____________ problems

1. Non-structured
2. Complex
3. Simple
4. None of the given

 Answer: 2 Chapter No.

### Question

Which one is NOT the advantage of Neural Network

1. Excellent for pattern recognition
2. Excellent classifiers
3. Handles noisy data well
4. None of the given

 Answer: 4 Chapter No.

### Question

_________ is the process of formulating the mapping from a given input to an output using Fuzzy logic.

1. FIZ
2. FIS
3. FOS
4. None of the given

 Answer: Chapter No.

### Question

The first step of FIND-S is to initialize h to the most specific hypothesis in __________: h = < Ø , Ø >

1. H
2. I
3. J
4. K

 Answer: Chapter No.

### Question

Outputs of learning are determined by the ________

1. Application
2. Validation
3. Training
4. None of the given

 Answer: Chapter No.

### Question

Inductive learning is based on the knowledge that if something happens a lot it is likely to be generally _______

1. TRUE
2. FALSE
3. Ambiguous
4. None of the given

 Answer: Chapter No.

### Question

Interactive Dichotomizer uses a special function ________, to evaluate the gain information of each attribute.

1. GAIN
2. GET
3. FIND
4. EVAL

 Answer: Chapter No.

### Question

Machine learning typically follows ___________ phases according to Finlay.

1. Two
2. Three
3. Four
4. Five

 Answer: Chapter No.

### Question

Each neuron in the hidden layer is responsible for a different _________.

1. Line
2. Layer
3. Neuron
4. None of the given

 Answer: Chapter No.

### Question

Artificial Neural Networks is a new learning paradigm which takes its roots from _________ inspired approach to learning.

1. Chemistry
2. Physics
3. Biology
4. Mathematics

 Answer: Chapter No.

### Question

A concept is the representation of the __________ with respect to the given attributes.

1. Solution
2. Problem
3. Knowledge
4. None of the given

 Answer: Chapter No.

### Question

The brain is a collection of about 100 ________ interconnected neurons.

1. Million
2. Billion
3. Trillion
4. None of the given

 Answer: Chapter No.

### Question

Intelligence is the characteristic of

1. Living being
2. All things
3. None of them
4. All of them

 Answer: 1 Chapter No. 1

### Question

Can we precisely define Artificial Intelligence?

1. Yes we can
2. No we can not

 Answer: 2 Chapter No. 1

### Question

Which of the following things demonstrate Intelligence?

1. Problem solving
2. Recognize/Remember
3. Think/learn/Plan/Schedule
4. All of the above

 Answer: 4 Chapter No. 1

### Question

Try to catch out own thoughts as they go by is ________.

1. Introspection
2. Psychology
3. Both of given
4. None of the given

 Answer: 1 Chapter No. 2

### Question

Intelligence is the ability to ____________.

1. Think/learn/Plan/Schedule
2. Recognize/Remember
3. Problem solving
4. All of the above

 Answer: 4 Chapter No. 2

### Question

__________ AI actually tries to recreate the functions of the inside of the brain as opposed to simply emulating behavior.

1. Weak
2. Strong
3. Weak and Strong
4. None of the given

 Answer: 2 Chapter No. 2

### Question

__________ AI treats the brain as a black box and just emulates its functionality.

1. Weak
2. Strong
3. Weak and Strong
4. None of the given

 Answer: 1 Chapter No. 2

### Question

From discipline of _____________ we have the tools and techniques to investigate the human mind and ways to represent the resulting theories.

1. Computer Science
2. Biology
3. Mathematics
4. Psychology

 Answer: 4 Chapter No. 3

### Question

From discipline of _____________ we have information about the network structure of a human brain and all the theories on functionalities of different human organs.

1. Mathematics
2. Biology
3. Computer Science
4. Psychology

 Answer: 2 Chapter No. 3

### Question

Which of the following disciplines provides us with the theories of structure and meaning of language?

1. Linguistic
2. Philosophy
3. Biology
4. Psychology

 Answer: 1 Chapter No. 3

### Question

Hit and trial is a classical approach to solve the ___________ problem easily.

1. Trivial
2. Medium
3. All of the given
4. None of the given

 Answer: 1 Chapter No. 4

### Question

__________ is a Classical way of problem solving.

1. GA
2. Generate and Test
3. Reasoning
4. None of the given

 Answer: 2 Chapter No. 4

### Question

The traveling inside a solution space requires something called as __________.

1. Problem Statement
2. Operands
3. Operators
4. Solution Space

 Answer: 3 Chapter No. 4

### Question

Some essential components of problem solving are Problem statement, ________, Solution space and Operators.

1. Complex State
2. Initial State
3. Intermediate State
4. Goal State

 Answer: 4 Chapter No. 4

### Question

By getting grips on _________ that deal with searching techniques in graphs and trees, problem solving can be performed in an efficient manner.

1. Pseudocode
2. Algorithms
3. Charts
4. Graphs

 Answer: 2 Chapter No. 5

### Question

In Optimal Path searches we try to find the _________ solution.

1. Least
2. Best
3. Last but not the Least
4. None of the given

 Answer: 2 Chapter No. 5

### Question

Most of the solution spaces for problems can be represented in _______.

1. Trees
2. Demos
3. Graphs
4. None of the given

 Answer: 3 Chapter No. 5

### Question

We use graphs to represent problems and their solution spaces.

1. True
2. False

 Answer: 1 Chapter No. 5

### Question

Every graph can be converted into a tree.

1. True
2. False

 Answer: 1 Chapter No. 5

### Question

Most of the solution spaces for problems can be represented in a ___________.

1. Graph
2. Table
3. Demo
4. None of the above

 Answer: 1 Chapter No. 5

### Question

Procedures that search the solution space in an uninformed manner are usually costly with respect to _________.

1. Time
2. Space
3. Time and space both
4. All of the given

 Answer: 3 Chapter No. 6

### Question

In DFS, node with the largest value of height will be at Priority ________.

1. Maximum
2. Minimum
3. Zero
4. Least

 Answer: 1 Chapter No. 7

### Question

In Depth First Search the node with the largest value of height will be at the ___________ priority to be picked.

1. Minimum
2. Maximum
3. Zero
4. Both minimum and maximum

 Answer: 2 Chapter No. 7

### Question

In Breadth First Search the node with the largest value of height will be at the _________ priority to be picked.

1. Zero
2. Minimum
3. Maximum
4. None of the given

 Answer: 3 Chapter No. 7

### Question

Breadth-First Search checks all paths of a given length before moving on to any longer paths.

1. True
2. False

 Answer: 2 Chapter No. 7

### Question

Breadth-first search is a good idea when you are confident that the branching factor is _________.

1. Extremely small
2. Small
3. Medium
4. Large

 Answer: 2 Chapter No. 7

### Question

The foothill problem occurs whenever there are________ peaks.

1. High
2. Secondary
3. Primary
4. Deep

 Answer: 2 Chapter No. 8

### Question

Which one of the problems is more subtle, and consequently, is more frustrating?

1. Foothill problem
2. Plateau
3. Ridge
4. Box

 Answer: 3 Chapter No. 8

### Question

The paths founded by Best First search are likely to be _________ than those found with other methods.

1. Longer
2. Shorter
3. Both of the given
4. None of the given

 Answer: 2 Chapter No. 8

### Question

Best First Search is a greedy approach.

1. True
2. False

 Answer: 1 Chapter No. 8

### Question

In Adversarial search there may occur such a scenario where two opponents also called ___________ are searching for a goal.

1. Adversaries
2. Friend
3. Players
4. Intruders

 Answer: 1 Chapter No. 9

### Question

We can get optimal solution given some parameters using Genetic Algorithm.

1. True
2. False

 Answer: 1 Chapter No. 11

### Question

Genetic algorithm uses evolutionary techniques, based on function optimization and artificial intelligence, to develop a solution.

1. True
2. False

 Answer: 1 Chapter No. 11

### Question

In Basic Genetic Algorithm the term mutation refers to a small random ________.

1. Number
2. Change
3. Operator
4. Operand

 Answer: 2 Chapter No. 11

### Question

Genetic Algorithms is a search method in which multiple search paths are followed in _______.

1. Series
2. Parallel
3. Sequential
4. None of the given

 Answer: 2 Chapter No. 11

### Question

A function by which we can tell which board position is nearer to our goal is called _________.

1. Alternative function
2. Recursive function
3. Best function
4. Fitness function

 Answer: 4 Chapter No. 12

### Question

What is the correct order for solving a problem using GA
I. Choose the best individuals from the population for crossover
II. Choose initial population
III. Evaluate the fitness of each individual

1. I,II,III
2. I,III,II
3. II,I,III
4. II,III,I

 Answer: 4 Chapter No. 12

### Question

Mutation can be as simple as just flipping a bit at random or any number of bits.

1. True
2. False

 Answer: 1 Chapter No. 12

### Question

In GA, the random process is repeated until an individual with required _________ level is found.

1. Higher
2. Lower
3. Fitness
4. Logical

 Answer: 3 Chapter No. 13

### Question

A function by which we can tell which board position is nearer to our goal is called.

1. Alternative function
2. Recursive function
3. Best function
4. Fitness function

 Answer: 4 Chapter No. 13

### Question

An AI system must form a meaningful and useful __________ of the internal information.

1. Representation
2. Execution
3. Learning
4. Planning

 Answer: 1 Chapter No. 14

### Question

An AI system has a ____________ component that allows the system to get information from its environment.

1. Planning
2. Perception
3. Learning
4. Execution

 Answer: 2 Chapter No. 14

### Question

In the worst case of semantic network, we may need to traverse the entire network and then discover that the requested info ________.

1. Does not exist
2. Exists
3. Is incorrect
4. Is correct

 Answer: 1 Chapter No. 15

### Question

A proposition is the statement of a _________.

1. Equation
2. Action
3. Theorem
4. Fact

 Answer: 4 Chapter No. 15

### Question

Semantic networks are graphs, with nodes representing _________ and arcs representing _________ between objects.

1. distance, relationships
2. objects, distance
3. relationships, distance
4. objects, relationships

 Answer: 4 Chapter No. 15

### Question

A statement in conjunctive normal form (CNF) consists of _________.

1. ANDs of Ors.
2. ANDs
3. Ors
4. Ors of ANDs

 Answer: 1 Chapter No. 16

### Question

__________ is the process of deriving logical conclusions from given facts.

1. Representation
2. Execution
3. Reasoning
4. Planning

 Answer: 3 Chapter No. 16

### Question

In the statement "IF A THEN B", A is called

1. Antecedent
2. Consequent

 Answer: 1 Chapter No. 16

### Question

__________ reasoning is based on forming, or inducing a ‘generalization’ from a limited set of observations.

1. Deductive
2. Abductive
3. Inductive
4. Analogical

 Answer: 3 Chapter No. 16

### Question

An ___________ is “A computer program designed to model the problem solving ability of a human expert”.

1. Expert system
2. Intelligent System
3. Echo System
4. Energy System

 Answer: 1 Chapter No. 18

### Question

Another expert system named __________ was developed by Digital Equipment Corporation, as a computer configuration assistant.

1. R1/XCON
2. MYCIN
3. Dendral
4. R3/XCON

 Answer: 1 Chapter No. 18

### Question

An expert system may replace the expert or assist the expert.

1. True
2. False

 Answer: 1 Chapter No. 18

### Question

Conventional programming focuses on _______, while ES programming focuses on ________.

1. Solution, Problem
2. Problem, Solution
3. Problem, Expert
4. Solution, Expert

 Answer: 1 Chapter No. 20

### Question

In backward chaining terminology, the hypothesis to prove is called the ________.

1. Proof
2. Goal
3. Plan
4. None of the given

 Answer: 2 Chapter No. 21

## Course Codes

Select a course code for Objective Questions:

Select a course code for Subjective Questions: