In the name of ALLAH, the most beneficient, the most merciful

## Artificial Intelligence (CS607)

Multiple Choice Questions (MCQs)

## Objective Questions

### Question

Identify the statement which best defines the fuzzy sets.

1. Fuzzy sets, unlike classical sets, restrict themselves to something lying wholly in either set A or in set not-A.
2. Fuzzy sets, like classical sets, restrict themselves to something lying wholly in either set A or in set not-A.
3. Fuzzy sets, unlike classical sets, do not restrict themselves to something lying wholly in either set A or in set A.
4. Fuzzy sets, unlike classical sets, do not restrict themselves to something lying wholly in either set A or in set not-A.

### Question

Identify that for which purpose statment given below is used (deftamplate Person (slot name (type STRING)) (slot age(type NUMBER)) )

1. Attributes of a fact
2. Rule
3. Rule definition
4. CLIPS

### Question

Identify the correct statement to list facts numbers 1 through 10

1. clips> (facts 1 10)
2. clips> (facts 1 to 10)
3. clips> (facts 10)
4. clips> (facts 1)

### Question

Fuzzy logic is actually a superset of conventional boolean logic

1. True
2. False

### Question

Identify which statement defines classical sets in a best way

1. A classical set is a container, which wholly includes but not wholly excludes any given element.
2. A classical set is a container, which does not wholly includes or wholly excludes any given element.
3. A classical set is a container, which sometimes wholly includes or wholly excludes any given element.
4. A classical set is a container, which wholly includes or wholly excludes any given element.

### Question

General stages of ESDLC includes.

1. Spiral model
2. Linear model
3. Beta system (tested by users)
4. Design coding

### Question

Identify the correct definition of linear model given below.

1. A linear sequence of steps is applied repeatedly in an iterative fashion to develop the software models.
2. A non sequential sequence of steps is applied repeatedly in an iterative fashion to develop the expert systems.
3. A non linear sequence of steps is applied repeatedly in an iterative fashion to develop the expert systems.
4. A linear sequence of steps is applied repeatedly in an iterative fashion to develop the Expert Systems.

### Question

Fuzzy logic is a subset of conventional (Boolean) logic.

1. True
2. False

### Question

Identify the sets in which Membership Function is used.

1. Crisp set
2. Classical set
3. Fuzzy set
4. None of the given

### Question

The goal of knowledge analysis is to analyze and structure the knowledge gained during the planning phase.

1. True
2. False

### Question

Identify correct statement for the given rule. IF The aptitude level of an undergraduate student is low and The English understanding level of undergraduate student is dull THEN He is not eligible to go abroad for higher studies.

1. (deftamplate UnderGradStudent (slot attribute)(slot value))
(defrule StudentStatus (UnderGradStudent (attribute “aptitude level”)(value “low”))
(UnderGradStudent (attribute “English understanding level”)(value “dull”))
=> (printout t “He is not eligible to go abroad for higher studies”)
2. (deftamplate UnderGradStudent (slot attribute)(slot value))
(defrule StudentStatus (UnderGradStudent (attribute “aptitude level”)(value “low”))
(UnderGradStudent (attribute “English understanding level”)(value “dull”))
=> (printout t “He is not eligible to go abroad for higher studies”))
3. (deftamplate UnderGradStudent (slot attribute)(slot value))
(defrule StudentStatus (UnderGradStudent (attribute “aptitude level”)(value “low”))
(UnderGradStudent (attribute “English understanding level”)(value “dull”))
<=> (printout t “He is not eligible to go abroad for higher studies”))
4. (defrule StudentStatus (UnderGradStudent (attribute “aptitude level”)(value “low”))
(UnderGradStudent (attribute “English understanding level”)(value “dull”))
=> (printout t “He is not eligible to go abroad for higher studies”))

### Question

A classical set is a container, which wholly includes or wholly excludes any given element.

1. True
2. False

### Question

Sequence wise main phases of Linear model used in developing expert systems are given below.

1. 1)Planning
2)Knowledge acquisition and analysis
3)System evaluation
4)Knowledge design
5)Code
6)Knowledge verification
2. 1)Planning
2)Knowledge acquisition and analysis
3)Knowledge design
4)System evaluation
5)Code
6)Knowledge verification
3. 1)Planning
2)Knowledge acquisition and analysis
3)Knowledge design
4)Code
5)System evaluation
6)Knowledge verification
4. 1)Planning
2)Knowledge acquisition and analysis
3)Knowledge design
4)Code
5)Knowledge verification
6)System evaluation

### Question

IF IELTS score of Ali is 6 and CGPA of Ali is 3.7 and GRE score of Ali is 66 Then He is eligible to take admission in any of the University abroad

1. (deftamplate Ali (slot attribute)(slot value))
(defrule Alichance (Ali (attribute “IELTS score”)(value “6”))
(Ali (attribute “CGPA”)(value “3.7”))
(Ali (attribute “GRE”)(value “66”))
<=
(printout t “He is eligible to take admission in any of the University abroad”))
2. (deftamplate Ali (slot attribute)(slot value))
(defrule Alichance (Ali (attribute “IELTS score”)(value “6”))
(Ali (attribute “CGPA”)(value “3.7”))(Ali (attribute “GRE”)(value “66”))
=>
(printout t “He is eligible to take admission in any of the University abroad”)
3. (deftamplate Ali (slot attribute)(slot value))
(defrule Alichance (Ali (attribute “IELTS score”)(value “6”))
(Ali (attribute “CGPA”)(value “3.7”))
(Ali (attribute “GRE”)(value “66”))
=>
(printout t “He is eligible to take admission in any of the University abroad”))
4. (defrule Alichance (Ali (attribute “IELTS score”)(value “6”))
(Ali (attribute “CGPA”)(value “3.7”))
(Ali (attribute “GRE”)(value “66”))
=>
(printout t “He is eligible to take admission in any of the University abroad”))

### Question

Identify the step involved in planning phase.

1. Knowledge acquisition from expert
2. Coding
3. Resource allocation
4. Identify concrete knowledge elements

### Question

Identify the correct step used to start design of an expert system.

1. Feasiblity study
2. Problem recognization
3. Scope study
4. Rapid prototyping

### Question

____________ learning works on existing facts and knowledge and deduces new knowledge from the old.

1. Deductive
2. Inductive
3. Application
4. None of the given

### Question

A concept is the representation of the __________ with respect to the given attributes.

1. Solution
2. Problem
3. Knowledge
4. None of the given

### Question

Each neuron in the hidden layer is responsible for a different _________.

1. Line
2. Layer
3. Neuron
4. None of the given

### Question

If the true output of a concept [c(xi)] is 1 or 0 for an instance, then the output by our hypothesis [h(xi)] is 1 or 0 as well, respectively.

1. True
2. False

### Question

In Candidate-Elimination algorithm version space is represented by two sets named:

1. G and S
2. G and F
3. S and F
4. H and S

### Question

Inductive learning is based on the knowledge that if something happens a lot it is likely to be generally _________

1. True
2. False
3. Ambiguous
4. None of the given

### Question

Inductive learning takes examples and generalizes rather than starting with __________ knowledge

1. Existing
2. Inductive
3. Deductive
4. None of the given

### Question

Machine learning is a prerequisite for any mature program of artificial intelligence

1. True
2. False

### Question

The tractable problems are further divided into structured and ____________ problems

1. Non-structured
2. Complex
3. Simple
4. None of the given

### Question

Which one is NOT the advantage of Neural Network

1. Excellent for pattern recognition
2. Excellent classifiers
3. Handles noisy data well
4. None of the given

### Question

_________ is the process of formulating the mapping from a given input to an output using Fuzzy logic.

1. FIZ
2. FIS
3. FOS
4. None of the given

### Question

The first step of FIND-S is to initialize h to the most specific hypothesis in __________: h = < Ø , Ø >

1. H
2. I
3. J
4. K

### Question

Outputs of learning are determined by the ________

1. Application
2. Validation
3. Training
4. None of the given

### Question

Inductive learning is based on the knowledge that if something happens a lot it is likely to be generally _______

1. TRUE
2. FALSE
3. Ambiguous
4. None of the given

### Question

Interactive Dichotomizer uses a special function ________, to evaluate the gain information of each attribute.

1. GAIN
2. GET
3. FIND
4. EVAL

### Question

Machine learning typically follows ___________ phases according to Finlay.

1. Two
2. Three
3. Four
4. Five

### Question

Each neuron in the hidden layer is responsible for a different _________.

1. Line
2. Layer
3. Neuron
4. None of the given

### Question

Artificial Neural Networks is a new learning paradigm which takes its roots from _________ inspired approach to learning.

1. Chemistry
2. Physics
3. Biology
4. Mathematics

### Question

A concept is the representation of the __________ with respect to the given attributes.

1. Solution
2. Problem
3. Knowledge
4. None of the given

### Question

The brain is a collection of about 100 ________ interconnected neurons.

1. Million
2. Billion
3. Trillion
4. None of the given

### Question

Intelligence is the characteristic of

1. Living being
2. All things
3. None of them
4. All of them

### Question

Can we precisely define Artificial Intelligence?

1. Yes we can
2. No we can not

### Question

Which of the following things demonstrate Intelligence?

1. Problem solving
2. Recognize/Remember
3. Think/learn/Plan/Schedule
4. All of the above

### Question

Try to catch out own thoughts as they go by is ________.

1. Introspection
2. Psychology
3. Both of given
4. None of the given

### Question

Intelligence is the ability to ____________.

1. Think/learn/Plan/Schedule
2. Recognize/Remember
3. Problem solving
4. All of the above

### Question

__________ AI actually tries to recreate the functions of the inside of the brain as opposed to simply emulating behavior.

1. Weak
2. Strong
3. Weak and Strong
4. None of the given

### Question

__________ AI treats the brain as a black box and just emulates its functionality.

1. Weak
2. Strong
3. Weak and Strong
4. None of the given

### Question

From discipline of _____________ we have the tools and techniques to investigate the human mind and ways to represent the resulting theories.

1. Computer Science
2. Biology
3. Mathematics
4. Psychology

### Question

From discipline of _____________ we have information about the network structure of a human brain and all the theories on functionalities of different human organs.

1. Mathematics
2. Biology
3. Computer Science
4. Psychology

### Question

Which of the following disciplines provides us with the theories of structure and meaning of language?

1. Linguistic
2. Philosophy
3. Biology
4. Psychology

### Question

Hit and trial is a classical approach to solve the ___________ problem easily.

1. Trivial
2. Medium
3. All of the given
4. None of the given

### Question

__________ is a Classical way of problem solving.

1. GA
2. Generate and Test
3. Reasoning
4. None of the given

### Question

The traveling inside a solution space requires something called as __________.

1. Problem Statement
2. Operands
3. Operators
4. Solution Space

### Question

Some essential components of problem solving are Problem statement, ________, Solution space and Operators.

1. Complex State
2. Initial State
3. Intermediate State
4. Goal State

### Question

By getting grips on _________ that deal with searching techniques in graphs and trees, problem solving can be performed in an efficient manner.

1. Pseudocode
2. Algorithms
3. Charts
4. Graphs

### Question

In Optimal Path searches we try to find the _________ solution.

1. Least
2. Best
3. Last but not the Least
4. None of the given

### Question

Most of the solution spaces for problems can be represented in _______.

1. Trees
2. Demos
3. Graphs
4. None of the given

### Question

We use graphs to represent problems and their solution spaces.

1. True
2. False

### Question

Every graph can be converted into a tree.

1. True
2. False

### Question

Most of the solution spaces for problems can be represented in a ___________.

1. Graph
2. Table
3. Demo
4. None of the above

### Question

Procedures that search the solution space in an uninformed manner are usually costly with respect to _________.

1. Time
2. Space
3. Time and space both
4. All of the given

### Question

In DFS, node with the largest value of height will be at Priority ________.

1. Maximum
2. Minimum
3. Zero
4. Least

### Question

In Depth First Search the node with the largest value of height will be at the ___________ priority to be picked.

1. Minimum
2. Maximum
3. Zero
4. Both minimum and maximum

### Question

In Breadth First Search the node with the largest value of height will be at the _________ priority to be picked.

1. Zero
2. Minimum
3. Maximum
4. None of the given

### Question

Breadth-First Search checks all paths of a given length before moving on to any longer paths.

1. True
2. False

### Question

Breadth-first search is a good idea when you are confident that the branching factor is _________.

1. Extremely small
2. Small
3. Medium
4. Large

### Question

The foothill problem occurs whenever there are________ peaks.

1. High
2. Secondary
3. Primary
4. Deep

### Question

Which one of the problems is more subtle, and consequently, is more frustrating?

1. Foothill problem
2. Plateau
3. Ridge
4. Box

### Question

The paths founded by Best First search are likely to be _________ than those found with other methods.

1. Longer
2. Shorter
3. Both of the given
4. None of the given

### Question

Best First Search is a greedy approach.

1. True
2. False

### Question

In Adversarial search there may occur such a scenario where two opponents also called ___________ are searching for a goal.

2. Friend
3. Players
4. Intruders

### Question

We can get optimal solution given some parameters using Genetic Algorithm.

1. True
2. False

### Question

Genetic algorithm uses evolutionary techniques, based on function optimization and artificial intelligence, to develop a solution.

1. True
2. False

### Question

In Basic Genetic Algorithm the term mutation refers to a small random ________.

1. Number
2. Change
3. Operator
4. Operand

### Question

Genetic Algorithms is a search method in which multiple search paths are followed in _______.

1. Series
2. Parallel
3. Sequential
4. None of the given

### Question

A function by which we can tell which board position is nearer to our goal is called _________.

1. Alternative function
2. Recursive function
3. Best function
4. Fitness function

### Question

What is the correct order for solving a problem using GA
I. Choose the best individuals from the population for crossover
II. Choose initial population
III. Evaluate the fitness of each individual

1. I,II,III
2. I,III,II
3. II,I,III
4. II,III,I

### Question

Mutation can be as simple as just flipping a bit at random or any number of bits.

1. True
2. False

### Question

In GA, the random process is repeated until an individual with required _________ level is found.

1. Higher
2. Lower
3. Fitness
4. Logical

### Question

A function by which we can tell which board position is nearer to our goal is called.

1. Alternative function
2. Recursive function
3. Best function
4. Fitness function

### Question

An AI system must form a meaningful and useful __________ of the internal information.

1. Representation
2. Execution
3. Learning
4. Planning

### Question

An AI system has a ____________ component that allows the system to get information from its environment.

1. Planning
2. Perception
3. Learning
4. Execution

### Question

In the worst case of semantic network, we may need to traverse the entire network and then discover that the requested info ________.

1. Does not exist
2. Exists
3. Is incorrect
4. Is correct

### Question

A proposition is the statement of a _________.

1. Equation
2. Action
3. Theorem
4. Fact

### Question

Semantic networks are graphs, with nodes representing _________ and arcs representing _________ between objects.

1. distance, relationships
2. objects, distance
3. relationships, distance
4. objects, relationships

### Question

A statement in conjunctive normal form (CNF) consists of _________.

1. ANDs of Ors.
2. ANDs
3. Ors
4. Ors of ANDs

### Question

__________ is the process of deriving logical conclusions from given facts.

1. Representation
2. Execution
3. Reasoning
4. Planning

### Question

In the statement "IF A THEN B", A is called

1. Antecedent
2. Consequent

### Question

__________ reasoning is based on forming, or inducing a ‘generalization’ from a limited set of observations.

1. Deductive
2. Abductive
3. Inductive
4. Analogical

### Question

An ___________ is “A computer program designed to model the problem solving ability of a human expert”.

1. Expert system
2. Intelligent System
3. Echo System
4. Energy System

### Question

Another expert system named __________ was developed by Digital Equipment Corporation, as a computer configuration assistant.

1. R1/XCON
2. MYCIN
3. Dendral
4. R3/XCON

### Question

An expert system may replace the expert or assist the expert.

1. True
2. False

### Question

Conventional programming focuses on _______, while ES programming focuses on ________.

1. Solution, Problem
2. Problem, Solution
3. Problem, Expert
4. Solution, Expert

### Question

In backward chaining terminology, the hypothesis to prove is called the ________.

1. Proof
2. Goal
3. Plan
4. None of the given