Directions: Each passage in this group is followed by questions based on its content. After
reading a passage, choose the best answer to each question. Answer all questions following a passage
on the basis of what is stated or implied in that passage.
The railroads played a key role in the settlement of the West. They provided relatively
easy access to the region for the first time, and they also actively recruited
farmers to settle there. The railroads are criticized for their part in settling the
West too rapidly, with its resultant economic unrest. Of course there were abuses
connected with building and operating the railroads, but it must be pointed out
that they performed a useful service in extending the frontier and helping to
achieve national unity.
The real tragedy of the rapid settlement of the Great Plains was the shameful way
in which the American Indians were treated. Threatened with the destruction of
their whole mode of life, the Indians fought back savagely. Justice was almost entirely
on the Indians’ side. The land was clearly theirs; frequently their title was
legally certified by a treaty negotiated with the federal government. The Indians,
however, lacked the military force and the political power to protect this right.
Not only did white men encroach upon the Indians’ hunting grounds, but they
rapidly destroyed the Indians’ principal means of subsistence—the buffalo. By
1869, the railroads had cut the herd in half, and by the middle of the 1880s, both
the southern and northern herd were eliminated. The white man frequently killed
the buffalo merely for sport, leaving the valuable carcass to rot in the sun.
The plains Indians were considered different from the Indians encountered by the
English colonists on the Atlantic coast. Mounted on horses, typical plains Indians
were fierce warriors who could shoot arrows with surprising accuracy while galloping
at top speed. Although they quickly adapted themselves to the use of the rifle,
the Indians were not equal to the firepower of the United States Army and
thus were doomed to defeat.
Theoretically, at least, the government tried to be fair to the Indians, but all too often
the Indian agents were either too indifferent or corrupt to carry out the government’s
promises conscientiously. The army frequently ignored the Indian Bureau
and failed to coordinate its policies with the civilians who were nominally in
charge of Indian affairs. The settlers hated and feared the Indians and wanted
them exterminated. This barbaric attitude is certainly not excusable, but it is understandable
in the context of the time.
The author’s attitude toward the treatment of American Indians by whites is one of
- qualified regret.
- violent anger.
- strong disapproval.
- objective indifference.
- unfair bias.
(C. strong disapproval.) Although the author does not express violent anger, the characterization
of the treatment of the Indians as a tragedy and the pronouncement that the
whites’ behavior was barbaric certainly express strong disapproval.
The author implies which of the following about the forces at work during the settlement of the Great Plains?
- The federal government represented the moral use of law.
- Justice was overcome by military firepower.
- Attempts by the government to be fair were rejected by the Indians.
- The settlers’ hatred and fear was offset by the Indians’ attempts at kindness.
- The Indians and the white settlers shared a sporting interest in the hunting of buffalo.
(B. Justice was overcome by military firepower.) Although justice was on the Indians’ side (second paragraph), the Indians
were not equal to the firepower of the United States Army. Each of the other
choices contradicts information in the passage.
Which of the following is concrete evidence that the white settlers did not need the buffalo for their own subsistence, as did the Indians?
- More than half of the great buffalo herd had disappeared by 1869.
- Nearly 15 million buffalo were killed within 20 years.
- Buffalo carcasses were left rotting in the sun by whites.
- The railroad brought necessary food and supplies to the white settlers from the East.
- The white settlers had their own hunting grounds separate from the Indians’.
(C. Buffalo carcasses were left rotting in the sun by whites.) This is evidence that the whites killed buffalo for sport rather than for
subsistence. The disappearance of the buffalo herd is not, of itself, evidence
that the buffalo did not provide subsistence to the whites.
What is the point of the comparison between the plains Indians and the Indians encountered on the Atlantic coast?
- The Atlantic coast Indians were not as abused by white settlers.
- Because they were considerably better warriors than the Atlantic coast Indians, the plains Indians were a match for the United States military.
- If Indians such as those on the Atlantic coast had populated the plains, there would have been no bloodshed of the white settlement.
- The Indians encountered by English colonists posed no violent threat to the colonists.
- The Atlantic coast Indians were unfamiliar with horses.
(D. The Indians encountered by English colonists posed no violent threat to the colonists.) The point of comparison is that the Atlantic coast Indians were not fierce
warriors like the plains Indians. Thus they did not pose any kind of violent
Which of the following characteristics of the passage suggests that the abuse of the Indians is a more significant topic for the author
than the beneficial role of the railroads?
- the statement that the railroads “are criticized for their part in settling the West too rapidly”
- the amount of discussion devoted to the abuse of the Indians.
- the reliance on statistical details in both the first and second paragraphs.
- the mention of the plains Indians’ ability to fight.
- the perception that the achievement of national unity was one of the services that the railroad performed.
(B. the amount of discussion devoted to the abuse of the Indians.) Three of the four paragraphs of the passage are devoted to discussing the
abuse of the plains Indians. The “weight” the author gives to this topic suggests
The author of the passage would most likely disagree that
- the United States government’s policies toward the American Indians were shameful.
- the land that the Indians fought to retain belonged to them.
- numerous abuses were among the results of the railroads’ rapid spread westward.
- some American Indian tribes used sophisticated weapons brought by settlers.
- the United States army could not be considered a friend of the American Indian.
(A. the United States government’s policies toward the American Indians were shameful.) The author states that the government itself tried to be fair but that the
agents’ indifference or corruption failed the American Indians.
It can be inferred from the passage that the purpose of the Indian Bureau was to
- try Indians who violated the laws of the new territory.
- establish reservations where the peaceful American Indians would live.
- assist with Indian affairs and policies of the government regarding the American Indian.
- bring to justice white settlers who treated the Indians in a savage or unlawful manner.
- assist the Indians in learning a new method of procuring food to rely less on buffalo meat.
(C. assist with Indian affairs and policies of the government regarding the American Indian.) According to the final paragraph of the passage, the Indian agents were
either too indifferent or corrupt to carry out the government’s promises conscientiously.
The army frequently ignored the Indian Bureau and failed to coordinate
its policies with the civilians who were nominally in charge of
Indian affairs. Choices B and D may be historically correct but cannot specifically
be inferred from the passage.
All of the following are presented as overt enemies of the Indians EXCEPT the
- white hunters.
- Indian agents.
- western settlers.
(A. railroads.) Though the passage criticizes the railroads, it does not present them as
overt enemies of the Indians, but the last paragraph cites the agents, the army,
and the settlers.
In clean air, the human lung capacity will increase for the first 20 years of life,
then begin to decrease slowly. But in areas with heavy air pollution, lung capacity
growth is slowed. Breathing high levels of ozone or of sulfur and nitrogen oxides
lessens the growth of lung capacity and increases the speed of its deterioration in
later life. Adults who spend all their lives in bad air may have as much as 75%
less lung capacity than those who have lived in unpolluted air. The loss of both
the large and small airways of the lungs, narrowed by the unclean air, results in
the inefficient supply of oxygen to the organs of the body. The lungs do not recover
over time, and the ozone of Los Angeles and the sulfates and hydrocarbons
of industrialized eastern cities are equally pernicious. The victims of air pollution
are unlikely to be aware of what they have lost; they are so accustomed to shorter
breath and coughs that they vigorously deny that they have been affected at all.
Which of the following most accurately describes this passage?
- a description of a specific experiment.
- a summary report of scientific findings.
- a recommendation for improving health.
- a confirmation of an earlier theory.
- a refutation of an earlier theory.
(B. a summary report of scientific findings.) The passage summarizes findings about the effects of several kinds of unclean
air on the human lungs throughout a lifetime. No mention is made of
the earlier theories, and insofar as the passage makes a recommendation for
health improvement, it does so obliquely.
According to the passage, the capacity of the human lung would be greatest if a person were
- 40 years old and had not been exposed to unclean air until the age of 30.
- 40 years old and had lived without exposure to unclean air.
- 20 years old and had lived without exposure to unclean air.
- 20 years old and had been exposed to unclean air for 5 years.
- 10 years old and had been exposed for 1 year to heavy amounts of ozone.
(C. 20 years old and had lived without exposure to unclean air.) The passage places the beginning of the decrease in lung size at age 20.
Exposure to unclean air at any age decreases lung capacity.
It can be inferred from the passage that denizens of areas with heavy air
pollution have not been more active in attempting to improve air quality because
- they fear the costs of cleaning the air may increase their taxes.
- the federal government does not encourage clean air vigorously enough.
- the dangers of air pollution have only recently been discovered.
- they are unaware of the harm unclean air has done.
- there are rivalries between local, state, and federal clean air agencies.
(D. they are unaware of the harm unclean air has done.) The passage describes the victims of air pollution as unaware of the damage
they have suffered. It is reasonable to infer that they would be more active
if they were more conscious of their loss.
According to the passage, middle-aged adults who have lived all their lives
in a city with heavy air pollution from sulfur and nitrogen oxides may have
- as limited a lung capacity as life-long residents of Los Angeles of the same age.
- lung capacity less than that of life-long residents of an industrialized city in Eastern Europe.
- significantly reduced oxygen supplied to their vital organs.
- I only
- II only
- III only
- I and II only
- I and III only
(E. I and III only) Both the damage from ozone and industrial pollutants and the reduction
in oxygen supply are specific details in the passage. Eastern Europe is not mentioned.
Let us consider a hypothetical pair of communicants, utterer and interpreter,
from the operation point of view. We shall assume that our utterer has six hats:
red, blue, yellow, black, gray, and white. If the rods and cones (the tiny end organs
packed together on what corresponds to the sensitive films in the stereoscopic or
double-lens camera) of the retinae of his eyes are not defective, he will be able to
see that the six hats differ even though they are of the same shape and material. If
we reduce the light so that he can barely see, the white and the yellow will seem
to be the same. But as the light grows stronger he will be able to see that the red,
blue, and yellow affect him differently from black, gray, and white.
He now has sufficient experience (remember, this is all grossly oversimplified) to
conceive of color and shade. But he can also distinguish the red hat from the blue
and yellow hats, the yellow from the blue and red, and so forth. He is thus ready
for the concepts red, blue, and yellow if, for example, we provide him with a red
feather, a blue feather, and a yellow feather. Indeed, he may have the human impulse
to decorate the hat with the corresponding feather. And if the feathers seem
to have more in common with the white hat than the color hats have in common
with the white hat, he can see that his concept of shade will determine the difference
between the two reds, the two blues, or the two yellows, and he will have
need of the concepts of light and dark.
As we increase the number of shades he will require relation concepts like those
expressed in the suffixes -er and -est. By repeating the conventional symbols
“hat” and “red” with the red hat, he conditions the sound of the words to the sight
of the hat. If he sees that the relation of each feather to its hat is similar to the
other two, he has need of a relation concept like the one expressed by the preposition
“in,” and he is thus prepared to say to himself “light red feather in dark red
hat.” Now in the dark he is not able to tell one hat or one feather from another but
in the middle of a moonless night he is able to think “red feather in red hat” simply
by uttering the appropriate symbols to himself. And with his human impulse
to try new combinations, he can even think, “yellow feather in blue hat” without
ever having seen them thus combined.
By discussing the different effects of reduced and increased light, the author is
- pointing to a limitation in the dependence on perception by sight.
- preparing to discuss the concepts of light and dark.
- laying the ground for the distinction between what can be seen and what can be thought.
- III only
- I and II only
- I and III only
- II and III only
- I, II, and III
(C. I and III only) The discussion shows how perception by sight is determined by the availability
of light and looks ahead to the conclusion that the imagination can
work in darkness.
Of the following, the most plausible criticism that could be directed at the
“hats” example is that it is
- too difficult to follow.
- too hypothetical.
- too dependent on the esoteric language.
(C. too hypothetical.) This answer might be arrived at by considering that the “hats” example is
reasonable, relevant, pointed, and simply written; therefore, all choices except
C are eliminated. But it may also be argued that the example does not
describe a “real” situation.
According to the passage, the acquisition of symbols allows us not only to
communicate, but also to
- argue logically.
- respond to unconditioned stimuli.
- respond to conditioned stimuli.
- decorate hats.
(B. imagine.) This is the passage’s final point, that one can think yellow feather in blue
hat without seeing or having seen the items together.
The passage is most relevant to which of the following areas of study?
- aesthetics of logic.
- literature and history.
- linguistics and psychology.
(D. linguistics and psychology.) The passage is most clearly relevant to linguistics (the science of language)
and to psychology (the science dealing with the mind and mental processes).
Many people seem to think that science fiction is typified by the covers of some
of the old pulp magazines; the Bug-Eyed Monster, embodying every trait and feature
that most people find repulsive, is about to grab, and presumably ravish, a
sweet, blonde, curvaceous, scantily-clad Earth girl. This is unfortunate because it
demeans and degrades a worthwhile and even important literary endeavor. In contrast
to this unwarranted stereotype, science fiction rarely emphasizes sex, and
when it does, it is more discreet than other contemporary fiction. Instead, the basic
interest of science fiction lies in the relation between man and his technology
and between man and the universe. Science fiction is a literature of change and a
literature of the future, and while it would be foolish to claim that science fiction
is a major literary genre at this time, the aspects of human life that it considers
make it well worth reading and studying—for no other literary form does quite
the same things.
What is science fiction? It is a literary subgenre that postulates a change (for human
beings) from conditions as we know them and follows the implications of
these changes to a conclusion. That science fiction is a literary subgenre is a point
that is often overlooked. Specifically, science fiction is either a short story or a
novel. There are only a few poems and plays that could be called science fiction,
with Karel Capek’s RUR being the only play that is well known.
To say that science fiction is a subgenre of prose fiction is to say that it has all the
basic characteristics and serves the same basic functions in much the same way as
prose fiction in general. Everything that can be said about prose fiction, in general,
applies to science fiction. Every piece of science fiction, whether short story
or novel, must have a narrator, a story, a plot, a setting, characters, language, and
theme. And like any prose, the themes of science fiction are concerned with interpreting
man’s nature and experience in relation to the world around him. Themes
in science fiction are constructed and presented in exactly the same ways that
themes are dealt with in any other kind of fiction. They are the result of a particular
combination of narrator, story, plot, character, setting, and language. In short,
the reasons for reading and enjoying science fiction, and the ways of studying and
analyzing it, are basically the same as they would be for any other story or novel.
Although few examples of science fiction written before 1900 exist, you can
infer that it has been most popular in the twentieth century because
- with the growth of literacy, the size of the reading public has increased.
- competition from television and film has created a demand for more exciting fiction.
- science fiction is easier to understand than other kinds of fiction.
- the increased importance of technology in our lives has given science fiction an increased relevance.
- other media have captured the large audience that read novels in the nineteenth century.
(D. the increased importance of technology in our lives has given science fiction an increased relevance.) Choices A, B, and E do not apply to science fiction as opposed to other
fiction genres. Choice C may or may not be true. Because science fiction is
concerned with the relation between man and his technology, it follows that
as technology becomes more important, the fiction of technology would become
According to the definition in the passage, a fictional work that places human beings in a prehistoric world inhabited by dinosaurs
- cannot properly be called science fiction because it does not deal with the future.
- cannot properly be called science fiction because it does not deal with technology.
- can properly be called science fiction because it is prose fiction.
- can properly be called science fiction because it places people in an environment different from the one we know.
- can properly be called science fiction because it deals with humans’ relation to the world around them.
(D. can properly be called science fiction because it places people in an environment different from the one we know.) Paragraph 2 defines science fiction as postulating a change from known
to unknown conditions.
Science fiction is called a literary subgenre because
- it is not important enough to be a literary genre.
- it cannot be made into dramatic presentation.
- it has its limits.
- it shares characteristics with other types of prose fiction.
- to call it a “genre” would subject it to literary jargon.
(D. it shares characteristics with other types of prose fiction.) The sentence beginning at line 20 explains why science fiction is called a
subgenre of fiction.
From the passage, you can infer that science fiction films based upon ideas
that have originally appeared in other media are chiefly adaptations of
- short stories.
- folk tales.
(C. novels.) Though short stories are a possible source, it is more probable that the
longer novel is the source of science fiction films. The passage alludes to the
scarcity of science fiction works in poetry or drama.
The author believes that, when compared to other literary genres, science fiction is
- deficient in its use of narrators.
- unable to be adapted to drama.
- a minor but worthwhile kind of fiction.
- more concerned with plot than with theme.
- in need of a unique literary approach if it is to be properly understood.
(C. a minor but worthwhile kind of fiction.) The first paragraph says science fiction is not a major literary genre but
well worth reading and studying.
The emphasis on theme in the third paragraph of the passage suggests that
the author regards which of the following as an especially important reason
for reading science fiction?
- the discovery of meaning.
- the display of character.
- the beauty of language.
- the psychological complexity.
- the interest of setting.
(A. the discovery of meaning.) The theme is the controlling idea or meaning of a work of literature.
One implication of the final sentence in the passage is that
- the reader should turn next to commentaries on general fiction.
- there is no reason for any reader not to like science fiction.
- the reader should compare other novels and stories to science fiction.
- there are reasons for enjoying science fiction.
- those who can appreciate other prose fiction can appreciate science fiction.
(E. those who can appreciate other prose fiction can appreciate science fiction.) The final sentence presents a general comparison between any other story
or novel and science fiction, emphasizing their similarities and thus suggesting
that the subgenre of science fiction should be read as one reads fiction in
An appropriate title for this passage would be
- On the Inaccuracies of Pulp Magazines.
- Man and the Universe.
- Toward a Definition of Science Fiction.
- A Type of Prose Fiction.
- Beyond the Bug-Eyed Monster.
(C. Toward a Definition of Science Fiction.) The first paragraph leads up to the central question—What is science fiction?
All of the passage is an attempt to answer that question. Choices A and
D are too specific; B is too general; and E does not fit the tone of the passage.
Let us take the terms “subjective” and “objective” and determine whether we can
make up our minds what we mean by them in a statement like this: “Philosophers
and artists are subjective; scientists, objective.” First, the two terms make up a semantic
pair. The one has no meaning without the other. We may define each by
antonym with the other. We may define them by synonym by translating the last
syllable and say that “subjective” pertains to a subject, and “objective” pertains to
an object. By operation analysis we may say that subjects perceive or conceive
objects in the process of knowing. The word “knowing” reminds us that we are
talking about the central nervous system and should waste no time in examining
our terms for their sensory, affective, and logical components. The terms are primarily
logical. What, then, is the basic logical relation that establishes whatever
meaning they have? What goes on in the world when a poet is being subjective,
and how does it differ from what goes on when a scientist is being objective?
When the poet sings “Drink to me only with thine eyes,” he is responding immediately
or in retrospect to an object, his beloved, outside himself; but he is fundamentally
concerned with the sensations and emotions which that object stimulates
in him; and whether the object justifies his praise in the opinion of others, or indeed
whether there actually is such an object, is quite irrelevant to his purpose,
which is the weaving of a beautiful pattern of sound and imagery into a richly affective
concept of feminine loveliness. This is to be subjective.
Now the scientist is primarily concerned with the identity and continuity of the
external object that stimulates his response. It need not seem absurd to locate
the Eiffel Tower, or Everest, or the Grand Canyon, for that matter, in the mind
because it is so perfectly obvious that they can exist as the Eiffel Tower, Everest,
or the Grand Canyon nowhere else. Perhaps we can move a little closer to our definition
of “objective” by suggesting a distinction between an object and thing. Let
us define object as the external cause of a thing. Whether objects “exist” is obviously
not discussable, for the word “object” as used here must necessarily stand
not for a thing but for a hypothesis. There is, for example, no way of telling
whether objects are singular or plural, whether one should say the stimulus of the
Eiffel Tower experience or the stimuli of the Eiffel Tower experience. If then, it is
impossible even for the scientist to escape the essential subjectivity of his sensations,
generalizations, and deductions, what do we mean by calling him objective?
Which of the following is NOT a semantic pair?
(C. sitting/standing) Early in the passage you are told that in a semantic pair the one (term) has
no meaning without the other. You may define each by antonym with the other.
In short, semantic pairs are pairs of direct opposites. Only C is not such a pair.
Which of the following pairs best exemplifies the subjective/objective opposition as defined by the passage?
(B. knower/known) The first paragraph says subjects perceive or conceive objects in the
process of knowing. The pair that may best be substituted in that is knower
The passage refers to “Drink to me only with thine eyes” (line 14) primarily in order to
- suggest the affective powers of sound and imagery.
- exemplify the objective.
- exemplify the subjective.
- demonstrate how art can bestow universal significance on an object.
- illustrate the difference between literal and metaphorical language.
(C. exemplify the subjective.) The passage uses Drink to me only with thine eyes to show that the poet is
fundamentally concerned with sensations and emotions. The quotation is an
example of the subjective. In fact, the author finishes the paragraph by saying
This is to be subjective.
Given the content of the first and second paragraphs, the reader expects that the third paragraph will
- explain how the scientist is objective.
- define the identity and conformity of external objects.
- analyze what it is to be subjective.
- discriminate between an object and a thing.
- explore the implications of objectivity.
(A. explain how the scientist is objective.) Because the passage begins with the idea that the artist is subjective and
the scientist objective, and the second paragraph deals with the subjectivity of
the artist, you expect the third paragraph to be about the objectivity of the
According to the passage, “objectivity” depends on the assumption that
- discrete objects exist external to the mind.
- one’s vocation in life should be logical.
- subjectivity is a cognitive weakness.
- science is a viable discipline.
- the Eiffel Tower is a singular stimulus, not a diffuse experience.
(A. discrete objects exist external to the mind.) The author tells us that scientists, whom he defines as objective, are primarily
concerned with the identity and continuity of the external object that
stimulates (their) response. That is, to be objective one must believe that the
world is a collection of stable objects, each of which always looks the same.
E is a single example consistent with this assumption but is not itself broad
enough to support the question of objectivity in general. D is also too broad
to be the best answer. C is not an assumption allowed by the passage.
Faced with this statement, “What you see is just in your head,” the author of
the passage would be likely to
- strongly disagree.
- agree that the statement is probably true.
- argue against the appropriateness of the word “just.”
- assume that the person making the statement is not a scientist.
- argue that what is seen cannot be located outside or inside the mind.
(C. argue against the appropriateness of the word “just.”) The author concludes by saying that it is impossible even for the scientist
to escape the essential subjectivity of his sensations, generalizations, and deductions.
Because everything is subjective and different people each see the
same thing a bit differently, one is seeming to devalue this case by saying that
what you say you see is just in your head. In your head is not an unimportant
place; according to the passage, it is the only place.
According to the definitions of the third paragraph, which of the following is (are) true of an object?
- The reality of an object is hypothetical.
- Whether objects are plural or singular is uncertain.
- An object is the external cause of a thing.
- III only
- I and II only
- I and III only
- II and III only
- I, II, and III
(E. I, II, and III) The third paragraph defines an object as the external cause of a thing—a
hypothesis, with its singularity or plurality indeterminable. This is a definition
peculiar to this passage.
As Augustine contemplates his own nature as well as that of his fellow men, he
sees wickedness and corruption on every hand. Man is a sinful creature and there
is nothing that is wholly good about him. The cause is to be found in original sin,
which mankind inherited from Adam. If Adam is regarded as a particular human
being, it would make no sense at all to blame his descendants for the mistakes that
he made. But Adam is interpreted to mean the universal man rather than a particular
individual. Because the universal necessarily includes all of the particulars belonging
to the class, they are involved in whatever the universal does.
The total corruption of human nature as taught by Augustine did not mean that
man is incapable of doing any good deeds. It meant that each part of his nature is
infected with an evil tendency. In contrast to the Greek notion of a good mind and
an evil body, he held that both mind and body had been made corrupt as a result
of the fall. This corruption is made manifest in the lusts of the flesh and also in the
activities of the mind. So far as the mind is concerned, the evil tendency is present
in both the intellect and in the will. In the intellect, it is expressed in the sin of
pride, and in the will, there is the inclination to follow that which is pleasant at the
moment rather than to obey the demands of reason.
According to the passage, in order for modern man to be guilty of original sin
- he must be corrupt in both mind and body.
- he must be guilty of intellectual and physical errors.
- Adam must be regarded as a unique human being.
- Adam must be regarded as the universal man.
- Adam must be regarded as responsible for Eve’s fall.
(D. Adam must be regarded as the universal man.) The first paragraph explains that a universal Adam would involve all of
the particulars of his class in his actions.
Which of the following is a logical inference from this passage?
- The earlier in history a man is born, the more sinful he is likely to be.
- The later in history a man is born, the more sinful he is likely to be.
- Augustine would not agree with the phrase “as innocent as a newborn child.”
- Augustine would agree that animals inherit original sin from Adam.
- At birth, a female is less guilty of sin than a male.
(C. Augustine would not agree with the phrase “as innocent as a newborn child.”) According to Augustine, even a newborn would be guilty of the sin of
Which of the following would Augustine be most likely to regard as a consequence of the infected will?
- pride in one’s ancestry
- envy of another’s wisdom
- vanity about one’s appearance
- temper tantrums
(C. overeating) The sins of the will are those that are pleasant at the moment, such as eating.
Sins of pride, envy, or wrath are sins of the intellect.
According to the passage, the Greek idea of man differs from Augustine’s because it believed that
- man is incapable of performing good deeds.
- man possesses an evil body but a good mind.
- corruption proceeds from the infected will.
- man possesses a good body and a good mind.
- man is incapable of following the dictates of reason.
(B. man possesses an evil body but a good mind.) The second paragraph presents the notion of a good mind and evil body as Greek.
Laboratory evidence indicates that life originated through chemical reactions in
the primordial mixture (water, hydrogen, ammonia, and hydrogen cyanide) that
blanketed the earth at its formation. These reactions were brought about by the
heat, pressure, and radiation conditions then prevailing. One suggestion is that nucleosides
and amino acids were formed from the primordial mixture, and the nucleosides
produced nucleotides that produced the nucleic acids (DNA, the
common denominator of all living things, and RNA). The amino acids became
polymerized (chemically joined) into proteins, including enzymes, and lipids were
formed from fatty acids and glycerol-like molecules. The final step appears to
have been the gradual accumulation of DNA, RNA, proteins, lipids, and enzymes
into a vital mass that began to grow, divide, and multiply.
The evolution of the various forms of life from this biochemical mass must not be
considered a linear progression. Rather, the fossil record suggests an analogy between
evolution and a bush whose branches go every which way. Like branches,
some evolutionary lines simply end, and others branch again. Many biologists believe
the pattern to have been as follows: bacteria emerged first and from them
branched viruses, red algae, blue-green algae, and green flagellates. From the latter
branched green algae, from which higher plants evolved, and colorless rhizoflagellates,
from which diatoms, molds, sponges, and protozoa evolved. From
ciliated protozoa (ciliophora) evolved multinucleate (syncytial) flatworms. These
branched into five lines, one of which leads to the echinoderms and chordates.
The remaining lines lead to most of the other phyla of the animal kingdom.
From the language of the first paragraph, you can assume that
- some scientists do not accept the theories of the origin of life the passage presents.
- the reactions that produced life required a unique combination of heat, pressure, and radiation.
- some living forms are without DNA.
- I only
- I and II only
- I and III only
- II and III only
- I, II, and III
(B. I and II only) The terms indicates and suggestion imply that theories described are only
theories and not universally accepted. The passage calls DNA the common
denominator of all living things.
Which of the following best expresses the analogy between evolution and a bush?
- species : evolution :: bush : branching
- species : branching :: bush : evolution
- evolution : species :: bush : branched viruses
- evolution : species :: bush : branches
- evolution : species :: branches : bush
(D. evolution : species :: bush : branches) Evolution is to species in the same way as bush is to branches. Just as the
branches of a bush reach out every which way in varying lengths, the results
of evolution (forms of life, species) have devolved in irregular “branches.”
This is the main point of the second paragraph.
Which of the following can you infer to be the least highly evolved?
- green algae
- blue-green algae
- ciliated protozoa
(B. blue-green algae) Blue-green algae are the second step, emerging from bacteria.
According to the passage, the evolutionary line of sponges in its proper order is
- bacteria-viruses-green algae-sponges.
- bacteria-red algae-blue-green algae-rhizoflagellates-sponges.
- bacteria-blue-green algae-green flagellates-rhizoflagellates-sponges.
- bacteria-green flagellates-rhizoflagellates-sponges.
(E. bacteria-green flagellates-rhizoflagellates-sponges.) The passage presents sponges as evolving from rhizoflagellates, which
came from green flagellates, which came from bacteria.
Passage: The history of literature really began was the earliest of the arts. Man danced
for joy round his primitive camp fire after the defeat and slaughter of his enemy. He yelled and shouted
as he danced and gradually the yells and shouts became coherent and caught the measure of the coherent
and caught the measure of the dance and thus the first war song was sung. As the idea of God developed
prayers were framed. The songs and prayers became traditional and were repeated from one generation to
another, each generation adding something of its own.
As man slowly grew more civilized, he was compelled to invent some method of writing by three urgent
necessities. There were certain things that it was dangerous to forget and which, therefore, had to be
recorded. It was often necessary to communicate with persons who were some distance away and it was
necessary to protect one's property by making tools and so on, in some distinctive manner. So man taught
himself to write and having learned to write purely for utilitarian reasons he used this new method for
preserving his war songs and his prayers. Of course, among these ancient peoples, there were only a very
few individuals who learned to write, and only a few could read what was written.
Before man invented writing
- Literature was passed on by word of mouth
- Prayers were considered literature
- Literature was just singing and dancing
- There was no literature
(C). The first line of the passage describes the beginning of the literature as sing and dance
for joy around the campfires after the defeat and after slaughter of enemy. Gradually these literature
forms converted to advance literature. Hence it is obvious; literature was just singing and dancing
before the invention of writing, The right answer choice is C.
As for the war songs and prayers each generation
- Added something of its own to the stock
- Blindly repeated the songs and prayers
- Composed its own songs and prayers
- Repeated what has handed down to it
(A). In the second last line of the first part the sentence "each generation adding something of
its own", gives the right answer choice A.
The first war-song
- was inspired by God
- developed byspontaneously
- was a song traditionally handed down
- was composed by leading dancers
(B). Middle of the fourth line of the passage gives the idea that war songs were developed
spontaneouslyby yells and shouts. The right answer choice is B.
The war song evolved out of
- Creative inspiration
- There was no literature
- Artistic urge
- Yelling and shouting
(D). Same as question there. The right answer choice is D.
Man invented writing because he wanted
- To be artistic
- To write war song
- To write literature
- To record and communicate
(D). The second line of the second part of the passage describes the urgency of developing some
tool to remember. For the man at that time it was dangerous to forget, therefore he wanted to record for
the communication to the people who were at distance from him.
The word 'measure' in the context of the passage means
(B). The writer uses "coherent and measure" simultaneously in the passage. They stand for almost
the same meaning of rhythm. Moreover, according to passage both "measure of the coherent" and "measure
of the dance" led towards the development of the first war song. This idea also leads towards the
implied meaning of the word "measure" as rhythm.